Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) NEW BIOMARKER FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY Date: 25/12/2022 | Views: 889

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NGAL is a 25 KDa protein primarily found in activated neutrophils. In response to diverse illness situations, hepatocytes, immune cells, and renal tubular cells express NGAL, one of the components of innate immunity to bacterial infection. It was one of the gene products that were early expressed clearly after the renal ischemic injury. Serum and urine levels of NGAL are increased. Urinary NGAL originates in part from serum NGAL that is filtered by glomeruli and in part from NGAL that is synthesized by injured kidney tubular epithelial cells. Serum NGAL is primarily produced by immune cells and hepatocytes. NGAL is the septic AKI biomarker that has been subjected to the most research and is frequently utilized as a control when the other proteins are being evaluated. NGAL exhibits a bimodal tendency, with the first peak occurring before to and the second peak occurring 24–48 hours following the start of AKI. It is produced and released by tubular epithelial cells in the distal and proximal segments. It is quickly cleared by the proximal tubule by receptor binding and endocytosis after being readily filtered by the glomerulus. It is detectable in plasma or urine from healthy kidneys. However, in the event of acute tubular injury, NGAL experiences a quick and substantial upregulation with a significant rise in both plasma and urine. It greatly reduces the time required to diagnose AKI to just 2 hours with a 15-fold rise in urine compared to non-AKI. NGAL appears to have a more complicated role than just an antibacterial one. When a renal tubular injury occurs, NGAL expression will increase 1000-fold in both people and animals, and because it manifests in the serum and urine so quickly, it can be used as an early indicator of renal failure.