Vit. B12 deficiency and depression م.م. دعاء ساهي حسون Date: 25/09/2022 | Views: 420

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Vitamin :- is any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life also contain carbon in addition to the essential nutrients. Vitamins are distinct in several ways from other biologically important compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
Vitamins, on the other hand, generally cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet bodily needs and therefore must be obtained from the diet or from some synthetic source. For this reason, vitamins are called essential nutrients. Vitamins also differ from the other biological compounds in that relatively small quantities are needed to complete their functions
Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) plays an essential role in red blood cell formation, cell metabolism, nerve function and the production of DNA, the molecules inside cells that carry genetic information .
It is also a key player in the function and development of brain and nerve cells

Absorption
In the stomach, hydrochloric acid and enzymes unbind vitamin B12 into its free form. From there, vitamin B12 combines with a protein called intrinsic factor so that it can be absorbed further down in the small intestine (ileum).
Unlike most other vitamins, B12 is stored in substantial amounts, mainly in the liver, until it is needed by the body
Good sources of vitamin B12 include
1-meats (especially beef, pork, liver, and other organ meats),
2- eggs
3-fortified cereals
4-milk
5-oysters
6-salmon, and tuna.
Normal range: the level of this vitamin ranged between 200 to 900 ng/Liter of blood. Medium drop: if its minimum values ​​are between 200 to 500 ng/L. Severe deficiency: if its level is less than 180 ng/L
Vitamin B12 deficiency can result when the following occur:
1-People do not consume enough vitamin B12.
2-The body does not absorb or store enough of the vitamin.
Inadequate consumption
Vitamin B12 deficiency develops in people who do not consume any animal products (vegans) unless they take supplements. If a vegan mother breastfeeds her infant, the infant is at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency due to inadequate consumption is unlikely in other people.
.Inadequate absorption
The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is inadequate absorption. The following conditions can cause absorption to be inadequate:

1-Overgrowth of bacteria in part of the small intestine
2-Impaired absorption (malabsorption disorders such as celiac disease or certain pancreatic disorders)
3-Inflammatory bowel disease affecting the last part of the small intestine
4-Fish tapeworm infection
5-AIDS
6-Bariatric surgery for weight loss
7-Surgery that removes the part of the small intestine where vitamin B12 is absorbed
8-Drugs such as antacids and metformin (used to treat diabetes)
9-Repeated exposure to nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
10-Lack of intrinsic factor