A Scientific Article By Assistant teacher Maysam Hassan Jalil Entitled: Medical and biological importance of carbohydrates. Date: 23/11/2023 | Views: 400

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Medical and biological importance of carbohydrates

Introdiction
Carbohydrates are present in humans, animal tissues, plants and in micro-organisms. Carbohydrates are also present in tissue fluids, blood, milk, secretions and excretions of animals.
Definition Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic molecules in nature. It is a Polyhydroxy alcohols with a functional aldehydes and ketones composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.

Medical and biological importance of carbohydrates
1.Carbohydrates are the major source of energy for man. For example, glucose is used in the human body for energy production. 2. Some carbohydrates serve as reserve food material in humans and in plants. For example, glycogen in animal tissue and starch in plants serves as reserve food materials. 3. Carbohydrates are components of several animal structure and plant structures. In animals, carbohydrates are components of skin, connective tissue, tendons, cartilage and bone. In plants, cellulose is a component of wood and fiber. 4. Some carbohydrates are components of cell membrane and nervous tissue. 5. Carbohydrates are components of nucleic acids and blood group substances. 6. Carbohydrates are involved in cell-cell interaction. 7. Derivative of carbohydrates are drugs. For example, a glycoside ouabain is used in clinical medicine. Streptomycin an antibiotic is a glycoside. 8. Aminosugars, derivatives of carbohydrates are components of antibiotics like erythromycin and carbomycin. 9. Ascorbic acid, a derivative of carbohydrate is a water-soluble vitamin. 10. Bacterial invasion involves hydrolysis of mucopolysaccharides. 11. Survival of Antarctic fish in icy environment is due to presence of anti-freeze glycoproteins in their blood.


References
Harvey, Richard A., Ph. D. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry. Philadelphia :Wolters Kluwer Health, 2011. David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 7th Edition, W.H. Freeman & Co. Ltd, 2017