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Nanotechnology and its Applications تاريخ الخبر: 07/04/2024 | المشاهدات: 270

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What is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce new structures, materials and devices. The technology promises scientific advancement in many sectors such as medicine, consumer products, energy, materials, and manufacturing. Nanotechnology refers to engineered structures, devices, and systems. Nanomaterials have a length scale between 1 and 100 nanometers. At this size, materials begin to exhibit unique properties that affect physical, chemical, and biological behavior. Researching, developing, and utilizing these properties is at the heart of new technology.

Definitions and Scope
The present Opinion uses the various terms of nanotechnology in a manner consistent with the recently published Publicly Available Specification on the Vocabulary for Nanoparticles of the British Standards Institution (BSI 2005), in which the following definitions for the major general terms are proposed:
Nanoscale: having one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. Nanoscience: the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale.
Nanotechnology: the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Nanomaterial: material with one or more external dimensions, or an internal structure, which could exhibit novel characteristics compared to the same material without nanoscale features.
Nanoparticle: particle with one or more dimensions at the nanoscale. (Note: In the present report, nanoparticles are considered to have two or more dimensions at the nanoscale).
Nanocomposite: composite in which at least one of the phases has at least one dimension on the nanoscale.
Nanostructured: having a structure at the nanoscale.
The applications of nanotechnology
The applications of nanotechnology, commonly incorporate industrial, medicinal, and energy uses. These include more durable construction materials, therapeutic drug delivery, and higher density hydrogen fuel cells that are environmentally friendly. Being that nanoparticles and nanodevices are highly versatile through modification of their physiochemical properties, they have found uses in nanoscale electronics, cancer treatments, vaccines, hydrogen fuel cells, and nanographene batteries.
Nanotechnology's use of smaller sized materials allows for adjustment of molecules and substances at the nanoscale level, which can further enhance the mechanical properties of materials or grant access to less physically accessible areas of the body.
Industrial applications
Potential applications of carbon nanotubes
Nanotubes can help with cancer treatment. They have been shown to be effective tumor killers in those with kidney or breast cancer. Multi-walled nanotubes are injected into a tumor and treated with a special type of laser that generates near-infrared radiation for around half a minute. These nanotubes vibrate in response to the laser, and heat is generated. When the tumor has been heated enough, the tumor cells begin to die. Processes like this one have been able to shrink kidney tumors by up to four-fifths.
Construction
Nanotechnology's ability to observe and control the material world at a nanoscopic level can offer great potential for construction development. Nanotechnology can help improve the strength and durability of construction materials, including cement, steel, wood, and glass.
By applying nanotechnology, materials can gain a range of new properties. The discovery of a highly ordered crystal nanostructure of amorphous C-S-H gel and the application of photocatalyst and coating technology result in a new generation of materials with properties like water resistance, self-cleaning property, wear resistance, and corrosion protection. Among the new nanoengineered polymers, there are highly efficient superplasticizers for concrete and high-strength fibers with exceptional energy absorbing capacity.
Nanoelectronics
Nanoelectronics refers to the application of nanotechnology on electronic components. Nanoelectronics aims to improve the performance of electronic devices on displays and power consumption while shrinking them. Therefore, nanoelectronics can help reach the goal set up in Moore's law, which predicts the continued trend of scaling down in the size of integrated circuits.

Health applications
Nano-biotechnology
The terms nanobiotechnology and bionanotechnology refer to the combination of ideas, techniques, and sciences of biology and nanotechnology. More specifically, nanobiotechnology refers to the application of nanoscale objects for biotechnology while bionanotechnology refers to the use of biological components in nanotechnology.

Energy applications
The energy applications of nanotechnology relates to using the small size of nanoparticles to store energy more efficiently. This promotes the use of renewable energy through green nanotechnology by generating, storing, and using energy without emitting harmful greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.
Solar Cells
Nanoparticles used in solar cells are increasing the amount of energy absorbed from sunlight. Solar cells are currently created from layers of silicon that absorb sunlight and convert it to usable electricity. Using noble metals such as gold coated on top of silicon, researchers have found that they are able to transform energy more efficiently into electrical current. Much of the energy that is loss during this transformation is due to heat, however by using nanoparticles there is less heat emitted thus producing more electricity.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Nanotechnology is enabling the use of hydrogen energy at a much higher capacity. Hydrogen fuel cells, while they are not an energy source themselves, allow for storing energy from sunlight and other renewable sources in an environmentally-friendly fashion without any CO2 emissions. Some of the main drawbacks of traditional hydrogen fuel cells are that they are expensive and not durable enough for commercial uses.
Nanographene Batteries
Nanotechnology is giving rise to nanographene batteries that can store energy more efficiently and weigh less. Lithium-ion batteries have been the primary battery technology in electronics for the last decade, but the current limits in the technology make it difficult to densify batteries due to the potential dangers of heat and explosion. Graphene batteries being tested in experimental electric cars have promised capacities 4 times greater than current batteries with the cost being 77% lower.



Dr. Mustafa Baqir